How much is the world's electricity supplied by Hydroelectric Power Plants?
To add a 2700 TWH is generated every year. Hydropower supplies at least 50% of electricity production in 66 countries and at least 90% in 24 countries.
What are the different types of Hydroelectric Power Plants?
2. Francis - This is a reaction turbine which is used for head varying between 2.5m to 450m.
3. Kaplan - It is propeller type of plant with adjustable blades which are used for heads varying between 1.5 m to 70 m.
4. Propeller - It is used for head between 1.5 to 30 m
5. Tubular - This is used for low and medium height projects. Normally for head less than 15 m.
What are the major components of a Hydroelectric Power Plant?
The major components of a Hydroelectric Power Plant are:-
Head works i.e. power intake, head regulator and desilting chambers etc.
2. Head race tunnels/channels
3. Surge shaft/surge chambers
4. Pressure shaft/Penstock
5. Underground and surface power house
6. Tailrace channel or tailrace tunnel.
What is the classification of Hydro Projects based on Installed Capacity?
Micro: upto 100 KW
Mini: 101KW to 500 KW
Small: 500 KW to 7 MW
Mega: Hydro projects with installed capacity >= 500 MW
How energy is generated in Hydroelectric Power Plant?
Which is the largest Hydropower station in the world?
What is Internal Rate of Return (IRR)?
What is Net Present Value (NPV)?
What are the 'pass through' components in the tariff of Hydro Generating Stations?
What is Availability Based Tariff (ABT)?
It is also a new system of scheduling and despatch, which requires both generators and beneficiaries to commit to day-ahead schedules.
It is a system of rewards and penalties seeking to enforce day ahead pre-committed schedules, though variations are permitted if notified One and one half hours in advance.
The order emphasises prompt payment of dues. Non-payment of prescribed charges will be liable for appropriate action under sections 44 and 45 of the ERC Act.
It has three parts:
- A fixed charge (FC) payable every month by each beneficiary to the generator for making capacity available for use. The FC is not the same for each beneficiary. It varies with the share of a beneficiary in a generators capacity. The FC, payable by each beneficiary, will also vary with the level of availability achieved by a generator.
- In the case of thermal stations like those of NLC, where the fixed charge has not already been defined separately by GOI notification, it will comprise interest on loan, depreciation, O&M expenses, ROE, Income Tax and Interest on working capital.
- In the case of hydro stations it will be the residual cost after deducting the variable cost calculated as being 90% of the lowest variable cost of thermal stations in a region.
- An energy charge (defined as per the prevailing operational cost norms) per kwh of energy supplied as per a pre-committed schedule of supply drawn upon a daily basis.
- A charge for Unscheduled Interchange (UI charge) for the supply and consumption of energy in variation from the pre-committed daily schedule. This charge varies inversely with the system frequency prevailing at the time of supply/consumption. Hence it reflects the marginal value of energy at the time of supply.
What are the components of Bulk Electricity tariff of Hydro Plants?
1. Interest on Loan Capital
2. Depreciation & Advanced Against Depreciation
3. Return on Equity
4. Operation and Maintenance expenses
5. Interest on Working Capital.
The AFC is recovered in the form of Capacity and Primary Energy Charges.
What are approaches to tackle sedimentation problem of reservoir?
Effective desilting arrangements for prevention of silt.
Silt resistant equipments of withstanding the silt.
Effective operation of the reservoir to minimize silt deposition
Why Hydropower stations are preferred solution for meeting peak loads in grids?
Which is the largest Operating Hydro Power Station in the World?
What are the different types of Hydro Schemes?
What is the record completion period of a Hydro Power Station in India of more than 100MW ?
What is the estimated total Hydropower potential of India?
How much of the total Hydropower potential has been exploited so far in India?